Warfare[ edit ] Religious fighting and warfare spread with Protestantism. The radical new doctrine in Germany brought other simmering social tensions to a boil; peasant revolts flared inresulting in chaos and bloodshed across Austria, Switzerland and southern Germany.
Hire Writer This result had great appeal to the more secular rulers throughout Europe who sought to disentangle themselves from papal oversight and influence. Under the rule of the Holy Roman Emperor Mathias, Protest and Catholic factions had gained equity of representation and influence throughout the Hapsburg controlled regions.
This unification was driven, in part, by the larger Muslim threat presented by the Ottoman Empire. This truce, however, was an uneasy one with all the characteristics of a 17th century Cold War between the two religious sects, and as the balance shifted with the rise of a new monarch, each side began an arms race to defend their interests from the other.
The appointment of the intransigent Catholic monarch, Ferdinand II, posed a threat to Protestants throughout the various Habsburg controlled territories.
Religious hegemony of individual States was the preferred condition of German rulers in the early 17th century. This rang especially true among the Catholic territories where the Church exercised much greater political influence than their Protestant counterparts.
So when the balance of Protestant and Catholic controlled States was disrupted with the ascension of Ferdinand II — a widely acknowledged Catholic zealot — to the throne of Bohemia it brought a face to the fears of the Protestant nobility.
In an effort to limit his religious edicts, the Protestant Bohemians entreated for religious freedoms of their newly throned monarch.
This uprising spread throughout Europe, drawing in both political and religious powers to become decisively engaged. The unresolved religious dissent among the people and the Habsburg ruler served as a lodestone for conflict throughout Europe and lead ultimately to the decline of the Holy Roman Empire into several small autonomous territories.
Early successes by the Hapsburg against the Bohemians, and later the Palatinate States, led to the direct involvement of France and Holland allying against the Hapsburgs. These State actors all had their own agendas but ostensibly acted in support of the Protestant rebellion whose secular distancing from Church control appealed to both the ruling classes and commoners alike.
The Peace of Westphalia which was signed in the fall of signified the end of the war. Alsace became part of France, while Sweden gained much of the German Baltic coast, while the Emperor had to recognize the sovereign rights of the German princes, and equality between Protestant and Catholic states, while Spain, in a separate peace, finally acknowledged the independence of the Dutch Republic.
This war is often termed the War of Religion as religion was either the root cause of conflict, or the excuse used to mask political machination in efforts to expand power and influence.
But in truth, religion was merely the vehicle by which contention among the commoners and landowners took shape to facilitate change of the current governmental structure. Upon the conclusion of the war, after the smoke had cleared and the damage was tallied, Habsburg power was irrevocably shattered and France emerged as the new epicenter of European influence and might.
But the consequences extended beyond the immediate outcomes of the war. How to cite this page Choose cite format:Originally Answered: Why was the Thirty Years' War fought between the Catholics and the Protestants? Yes and no. The war started off as a Catholic-Protestant fight, however, it just ended up becoming a feud between Kings and ruling imperial dynasties.
The Thirty Years' War of the 17th century began as a conflict between A) Protestants and Catholics. B) Muslims and Christians. C) France and England. D) Germany and Italy. To go a little deeper, the answer to your question is that while the Thirty Years War () started out in the way that you suggest, that is, as a religious conflict between Protestants and Roman Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, it did not continue that way.
Gradually the war developed into a more general political conflict involving several of the European powers. The Thirty Years War began as a religious war between the German Roman Catholics and Protestants. This war soon developed into a political contest because Austrian Hapsburg rulers of the Roman Empire sought to expand in their control over Europe.
The conflict in America was known as the French and Indian War. Native American groups took sides with the French or the British. The treaty ended those wars and gave Britain a huge empire, thus changing Europe's balance of power for the next hundred years.
The European wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged in 16th and 17th century Europe, devastating the continent and killing over 10 million people.
The wars were fought in the aftermath of the Protestant Reformation (), which disrupted the religious order in the Catholic countries of Europe.