Sensation and Perception Literature Review Psychology 18 April Fear and pain constitute two of the most commonly misinterpreted concepts in human perception.
History of pain theory Before the relatively recent discovery of neurons and their role in pain, various different body functions were proposed to account for pain. There were several competing early theories of pain among the ancient Greeks: Hippocrates believed that it was due to an imbalance in vital fluids.
Specificity theory saw pain as "a specific sensation, with its own sensory apparatus independent of touch and other senses". They proposed that all skin fiber endings with the exception of those innervating hair cells are identical, and that pain is produced by intense stimulation of these fibers.
Cognitive activities "may affect both sensory and affective experience or they may modify primarily the affective-motivational dimension. Thus, excitement in games or war appears to block both dimensions of pain, while suggestion and placebos may modulate the affective-motivational dimension and leave the sensory-discriminative dimension relatively undisturbed.
Some sensory fibers do not differentiate between noxious and non-noxious stimuli, while others, nociceptorsrespond only to noxious, high intensity stimuli. At the peripheral end of the nociceptor, noxious stimuli generate currents that, above a given threshold, send signals along the nerve fiber to the spinal cord.
The "specificity" whether it responds to thermal, chemical or mechanical features of its environment of a nociceptor is determined by which ion channels it expresses at its peripheral end.
Dozens of different types of nociceptor ion channels have so far been identified, and their exact functions are still being determined. This is followed by a duller pain, often described as burning, carried by the C fibers.
These A-delta and C fibers connect with "second order" nerve fibers in the central gelatinous substance of the spinal cord laminae II and III of the dorsal horns.
The second order fibers then cross the cord via the anterior white commissure and ascend in the spinothalamic tract. Before reaching the brain, the spinothalamic tract splits into the lateralneospinothalamic tract and the medialpaleospinothalamic tract.
Other spinal cord fibers, known as wide dynamic range neuronsrespond to A-delta and C fibers, but also to the large A-beta fibers that carry touch, pressure and vibration signals. People with congenital insensitivity to pain have reduced life expectancy. The Evidence for Evolutionbiologist Richard Dawkins addresses the question of why pain should have the quality of being painful.
He describes the alternative as a mental raising of a "red flag". To argue why that red flag might be insufficient, Dawkins argues that drives must compete with one other within living beings.
The most "fit" creature would be the one whose pains are well balanced. Those pains which mean certain death when ignored will become the most powerfully felt. The relative intensities of pain, then, may resemble the relative importance of that risk to our ancestors.
This may have maladaptive results such as supernormal stimuli. The pain perception threshold is the point at which the stimulus begins to hurt, and the pain tolerance threshold is reached when the subject acts to stop the pain. Differences in pain perception and tolerance thresholds are associated with, among other factors, ethnicity, genetics, and sex.
People of Mediterranean origin report as painful some radiant heat intensities that northern Europeans describe as nonpainful.
And Italian women tolerate less intense electric shock than Jewish or Native American women.Fear, Pain and Perception by XXXXX XXXXXXXX Sensation and Perception Literature Review Psychology 18 April Fear and pain constitute two of the most commonly misinterpreted concepts in human perception.
The pain perception threshold is the point at which the stimulus begins to hurt, and the pain tolerance threshold is reached when the subject acts to stop the pain. Many people fear the stigma of addiction, and avoid pain treatment so as not to be prescribed potentially addicting drugs.
Fear of Pain, Pain Catastrophizing, and Acute Pain Perception: Relative Prediction and Timing of Assessment.
Previous studies of the Fear-Avoidance Model of Exaggerated Pain Perception have commonly included patients with chronic low back pain, making it difficult to determine which psychological factors. 1. Behav Res Ther. ;21(4) Outline of a Fear-Avoidance Model of exaggerated pain perception--I. Lethem J, Slade PD, Troup JD, Bentley G. Fear and Pain. By Dr. Jan Carstoniu. This heightened response may lead to the perception of greater pain, greater fear or both. The above is an example of synergy: Fear may increase pain and pain may increase fear, precisely because they are so strongly associated. It is not so much that fear causes pain or vice versa but that each can.
The Psychology of Pain George R. Hansen, MDa,*, HI , USA The perception of pain involves far more than mere sensation.
The aﬀective and evaluative components of pain are often as important as the production and transmission of the pain signal. In laboratory studies of experimental pain in which context, fear, and anxiety are.
Pain perception, aversion and fear in fish - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Aug 22, · The current evidence that fear reduces tactile sensitivity, when viewed in light of previous evidence that fear enhances visual perception (e.g., Schupp et al., ), is consistent with this view.
Limited resource models of attention could be invoked to explain such a trade-off.