The aristocratic Mussorgsky brothers—Filaret also known as "Yevgeniy", leftand Modest right The spelling and pronunciation of the composer's name has caused some confusion. The family name derives from a 15th- or 16th-century ancestor, Roman Vasilyevich Monastyryov, who appears in the Velvet Bookthe 17th-century genealogy of Russian boyars.
History[ edit ] Plato's forms, the beginning of ekphrasis[ edit ] In the Republic, Book X, Plato discusses forms by using real things, such as a bedfor example, and calls each way a bed has been made, a "bedness".
He commences with the original form of a bed, one of a variety of ways a bed may have been constructed by a craftsman and compares that form with an ideal form of a bed, of a perfect archetype or image in the form of which beds ought to be made, in short, the epitome of bedness.
In his analogy, one bedness form shares its own bedness — with all its shortcomings — with that of the ideal form, or template. A third bedness, too, may share the ideal form. He continues with the fourth form also containing elements of the ideal template or archetype which in this way remains an ever-present and invisible ideal version with which the craftsman compares his work.
As bedness after bedness shares the ideal form and template of all creation of beds, and each bedness is associated with another ad infinitum, it is called an "infinite regress of forms". From form to ekphrasis[ edit ] It was this epitome, this template of the ideal form, that a craftsman or later an artist would try to reconstruct in his attempt to achieve perfection in his work, that was to manifest itself in ekphrasis at a later stage.
Artists began to use their own literary and artistic genre of art to work and reflect on another art to illuminate what the eye might not see in the original, to elevate it and possibly even surpass it.
Plato and Mussorgsky eight essays and an epilogue edit ] For Plato and Aristotleit is not so much the form of each bed that defines bedness: The painter's products stand before us as though they were alive, but if you question them, they maintain a most majestic silence. It is the same with written words; they seem to talk to you as if they were intelligent, but if you ask them anything about what they say, from a desire to be instructed, they go on telling you just the same thing forever".
Ekphrasis is described in Aphthonius ' Progymnasmatahis textbook of styleand later classical literary and rhetorical textbooks, and with other classical literary techniques was keenly revived in the Renaissance.
In the Middle Ages, ekphrasis was less often practiced, especially as regards real objects, and historians of medieval art have complained that the accounts of monastic chronicles recording now vanished art concentrate on objects made from valuable materials or with the status of relicsand rarely give more than the cost and weight of objects, and perhaps a mention of the subject matter of the iconography.
The Renaissance and Baroque periods made much use of ekphrasis. In Spain, Lope de Vega often used allusions and descriptions of Italian art in his plays, and included the painter Titian as one of his characters. Cervanteswho spent his youth in Italy, utilized many Renaissance frescoes and paintings in Don Quixote and many of his other works.
In England, Shakespeare briefly describes a group of erotic paintings in Cymbelinebut his most extended exercise is a line description of the Greek army before Troy in The Rape of Lucrece. Ekphrasis seems to have been less common in France during these periods.
Herman Melville's Moby Dickor The Whale features an intense use of ekphrasis as a stylistic manifesto of the book in which it appears. In the chapter "The Spouter Inn", a painting hanging on the wall of a whaler's inn is described as irreconcilably unclear, overscrawled with smoke and defacements.
The narrator, so-called Ishmael, describes how this painting can be both lacking any definition and still provoking in the viewer dozens of distinct possible understandings, until the great mass of interpretations resolves into a Whale, which grounds all the interpretations while containing them, an indication of how Melville sees his own book unfolding around this chapter.
In Ibsen 's work The Lady from the Seathe first act begins with the description of a painting of a mermaid dying on the shore and is followed by a description of a sculpture that depicts a woman having a nightmare of an ex-lover returning to her.
Both works of art can be interpreted as having much importance in the overall meaning of the play as protagonist Ellida Wangel both yearns for her lost youth spent on an island out at sea and is later in the play visited by a lover she thought dead.
Furthermore, as an interesting example of the back-and-forth dynamic that exists between literary ekphrasis and art, in eight years after the play was written Norwegian painter Edvard Munch painted an image similar to the one described by Ibsen in a painting he entitled unsurprisingly enough Lady from the Sea.
Ibsen's last work When We Dead Awaken also contains examples of ekphrasis as the play's protagonist, Arnold Rubek, is a sculptor who several times throughout the play describes his masterpiece "Resurrection Day" at length and in the many different forms the sculpture took throughout the stages of its creation.
Once again the evolution of the sculpture as described in the play can be read as a reflection on the transformation undergone by Rubek himself and even as a statement on the progression Ibsen's own plays took as many scholars have read this final play stated by Ibsen himself to be an 'epilogue' as the playwright's reflection on his own work as an artist.
In this novel, the protagonist, Prince Myshkin, sees a painting of a dead Christ in the house of Rogozhin that has a profound effect on him.
Later in the novel, another character, Hippolite, describes the painting at much length depicting the image of Christ as one of brutal realism that lacks any beauty or sense of the divine. Rogozhin, who is himself the owner of the painting, at one moment says that the painting has the power to take away a man's faith, a comment that Dostoyevsky himself made to his wife Anna upon seeing the actual painting that the painting in the novel is based on, The Body of the Dead Christ in the Tomb by Hans Holbein.
The painting was seen shortly before Dostoyevsky began the novel.Retrouvez Musorgsky: Eight Essays and an Epilogue (Livre en anglais) de Richard TARUSKIN sur benjaminpohle.com - LES THÉMATIQUES - Les Hommes - Compositeurs Musorgsky: Eight Essays and an Epilogue (Livre en anglais) Richard TARUSKIN The epilogue is a survey of revisionary productions of Musorgsky's works at home during the Gorbachev era.
Musorgsky: Eight Essays and an Epilogue by Richard Taruskin Incorporating both new and now-classic essays, this book sets the vocal works of Modest Musorgsky in a fully detailed cultural, political, and historical context. Dec 14, · Musorgsky has 5 ratings and 0 reviews. It is [a] fully illuminated story that Richard Taruskin, in the path-breaking essays collected here, unfolds arou /5(5).
Mussorgsky was born in Karevo, Toropets Uyezd, Pskov Governorate, Russian Empire, km ( mi) south of Saint benjaminpohle.com wealthy and land-owning family, the noble family of Mussorgsky, is reputedly descended from the first Ruthenian ruler, Rurik, through the sovereign princes of benjaminpohle.com age six, Mussorgsky began receiving piano lessons from his mother, herself a trained pianist.
Musorgsky: Eight Essays and An Epilogue. Musorgsky: Eight Essays and An Epilogue. The epilogue is a survey of revisionary productions of Musorgsky's works at home during the Gorbachev era.
Richard Taruskin is Professor of Music at the University of California, Berkeley. His books include Opera and Drama in Russia, Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions, and a new book with Princeton University Press, Defining Russia.