Based on findings from years of academic research, marketing scholars offer a summary of what we know about the short- and long-term effects of advertising. Overall Advertising Impact by Gerard J.
The AIDA model[ edit ] Generalised hierarchy of effects sequence The AIDA model is just one of a class of models known as hierarchy of effects models or hierarchical models, all of which imply that consumers move through a series of steps or stages when they make purchase decisions.
These models are linear, sequential models built on an assumption that consumers move through a series of cognitive thinking and affective feeling stages culminating in a behavioural stage doing Vakratsas ambler 1999. In other words, the AIDA model is an applied stimulus-response model.
Hierarchical models have dominated advertising theory,  and, of these models, the AIDA model is one of the most widely applied. Thus the hierarchy of effects models all include Cognition C - Affect A - Behaviour B as the core steps in the underlying behavioral sequence.
Using a hierarchical system, such as AIDA, provides the marketer with a detailed understanding of how target Vakratsas ambler 1999 change over time, and provides insights as to which types of advertising messages are likely to be more effective at different junctures.
Moving from step to step, the total number of prospects diminishes. This phenomenon is sometimes described as a " purchase funnel. According to the original model, "the steps to be taken by the seller at each stage are as follows: Hold attention Through Interest. Create Confidence and Belief.
Secure Decision and Action. In empirical studies, the model has been found to be a poor predictor of actual consumer behaviour.
Indeed, some research suggests that consumers process promotional information via dual pathways, namely both cognitive thinking and affective feeling simultaneously. Some of these include post purchase stages, while other variants feature adaptations designed to accommodate the role of new, digital and interactive media, including social media and brand communities.
However, all follow the basic sequence which includes Cognition- Affect- Behaviour. The mission of an advertisement is to attract a reader, so that he will look at the advertisement and start to read it; then to interest him, so that he will continue to read it; then to convince him, so that when he has read it he will believe it.
If an advertisement contains these three qualities of success, it is a successful advertisement. Coolsen, "Lewis developed his discussion of copy principles on the formula that good copy should attract attention, awaken interest, and create conviction.
In a survey of more than papers, Vakratsas and Ambler () found little empirical support for any of the hierarchies of effects. In spite of that criticism, some authors have argued that hierarchical models continue to dominate theory, especially in the area of marketing communications and advertising. Functional and experiential routes to persuasion: An analysis of advertising in emerging versus developed markets Lia Zarantonello, Kamel Jedidi, Bernd H. Schmitt Vakratsas & Ambler, ) have created an information processing framework of ad persuasion process in which the advertising message (the input of the process) generates an. In their seminal work addressing this issue, Vakratsas and Ambler () review over articles and books, establishing a taxonomy of models of advertising, based on three key consumer-response.
To do this, it must attract attention, of course; but attracting attention is only an auxiliary detail. The announcement should contain matter which will interest and convince after the attention has been attracted" p.
The importance of attracting the attention of the reader as the first step in copy writing was recognized early in the advertising literature as is shown by the Handbook for Advertisers and Guide to Advertising: The first words are always printed in capitals, to catch the eye, and it is important that they should be such as will be likely to arrest the attention of those to whom they are addressed, and induced them to read further.
InRichards wrote an advertisement for his business containing virtually all steps from the AIDA model, but without hierarchically ordering the individual elements: How to attract attention to what is said in your advertisement; how to hold it until the news is told; how to inspire confidence in the truth of what you are saying; how to whet the appetite for further information; how to make that information reinforce the first impression and lead to a purchase; how to do all these, — Ah, that's telling, business news telling, and that's my business.
Fred Macey, chairman of the Fred Macey Co. In arriving at a decision, he considered inter alia each advertisement in the following respect: Having attention it must create "Interest," 3d. Having the reader's interest it must create "Desire to Buy," 4th.
Having created the desire to buy it should help "Decision". Dukesmith's four steps were attention, interest, desire, and conviction. Russell in  where he wrote: The model's usefulness was not confined solely to advertising.
The basic principles of the AIDA model were widely adopted by sales representatives who used the steps to prepare effective sales presentations following the publication, inof Arthur Sheldon's book, Successful Selling. AIDA is a lynchpin of the Promotional part of the 4Ps of the Marketing mixthe mix itself being a key component of the model connecting customer needs through the organisation to the marketing decisions.ASSESSMENT OF ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS: A SCALE VALIDATION EXERCISE.
Dr. Ruchika Sachdeva. Assistant Professor. F.M.S department, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad, Haryana (Vakratsas, Ambler, ) the effectiveness of advertising can be evaluated in a space with effect, cognition, and experience as. Vakratsas and Ambler () analyzed large amount of research on the effects of advertising and found that there were mainly three kinds of.
Vakratsas, D., & Ambler, T. (). How advertising works: what do we really know? Journal of Marketing, 63(1), Print copy in first floor journals. Dr. Demetrios Vakratsas joined McGill's Faculty of Management in Prior to joining McGill, he taught and participated in research projects at The University of Texas at Dallas, London Business School, and University of Thessaloniki (Greece).
In a survey of more than papers, Vakratsas and Ambler () found little empirical support for any of the hierarchies of effects. In spite of that criticism, some authors have argued that hierarchical models continue to dominate theory, especially in the area of marketing communications and advertising.
Demetrios Vakratsas; Tim Ambler Journal of Marketing; Jan ; 63, 1; ABI/INFORM Global pg. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.