Nonverbal communication is important in the traditional Korean culture. Eye contact between people of different gender, age, and social status are lack in Korean. Small talk may be viewed as pointless, but meaningful conversation highly valued. Especially in the healthcare setting, it would be comfortable for a practitioner to engage in eye contact, small talk, and smiling with Korean patients.
Of the theoretical perspectives proposed to understand cultural variations in communication styles, the most widely cited one is the differentiation between high-context and low-context communication by Edward Hall, in Low-context communication is used predominantly in individualistic cultures and reflects an analytical thinking style, where most of the attention is given to specific, focal objects independent of the surrounding environment; high-context communication is used predominantly in collectivistic cultures and reflects a holistic thinking style, where the larger context is taken into consideration when evaluating an action or event.
In low-context communication, most of the meaning is conveyed in the explicit verbal code, whereas in high-context communication, most of the information is either in the physical context or internalized in the person, with very little information given in the coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message.
These stylistic differences can be attributed to the different language structures and compositional styles in different cultures, as many studies supporting the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis have shown.
These stylistic differences can become, in turn, a major source of misunderstanding, distrust, and conflict in intercultural communication. Understanding differences in communication styles and where these differences come from allows us to revise the interpretive frameworks we tend to use to evaluate culturally different others and is a crucial step toward gaining a greater understanding of ourselves and others.
The communication styles of an individual, which combine both verbal and nonverbal elements, are shaped and reshaped by shared cultural values, worldviews, norms, and thinking styles of the cultural group to which they belong.
Needless to say, understanding the fundamental patterns of communication styles as well as the underlying systems of thought that give rise to them will help to reduce cultural barriers that hinder intercultural relationships and collaborations.
This article begins by introducing major theoretical frameworks that have been used to describe culture. Next, fundamental patterns of communication styles will be introduced, along with a discussion of the relationship between culture and language.
Finally, implications of cultural differences in communication styles will be discussed. Cultural Frameworks Culture has been defined in many ways. Some commonly applied definitions view culture as patterned ways of thinking, feeling, and reacting, common to a particular group of people and that are acquired and transmitted through the use of symbols.
Others view culture as a function of interrelated systems that include the ecology e. It is fair to say that culture includes both objective and subjective elements. These interrelated systems do not dictate culture; rather, we can use them as a general framework to understand culture and its relation to individual and collective actions.
A number of approaches have been used to describe and explain cultural differences. This article focuses on two approaches that are most widely accepted and relevant to our understanding of cultural variations in communication styles: Value can be defined as an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct is socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct.
Values form the basis for judging the desirability of some means or end of action.
Dimensions of Cultural Values Based on a study of 88, IBM employees in 72 countries, between andHofstede identified four dimensions of cultural values: Later, Hofstede and Bond added a fifth dimension, dynamic Confucianism, with long-term orientation refers to future-oriented values such as persistence and thrift, whereas short-term orientation refers to past- and present-oriented values, such as respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations.
The individualism-collectivism dimension alone has inspired thousands of empirical studies examining cultural differences.
More specifically, people in individualistic societies, such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and most of the northern and western European countries, tend to emphasize individual rights, such as freedom, privacy, and autonomy.
They tend to view themselves as unique and special, and are free to express their individual thoughts, opinions, and emotions. Individualists also value equality; they do not differentiate between ingroups and outgroups, applying the same standards universally, also known as universalism.
In comparison, people in collectivistic societies, such as most of Latin American, African, and Asian countries, and the Middle East, tend to view themselves as part of an interconnected social network. They emphasize the obligations they have toward their ingroup members, and are willing to sacrifice their individual needs and desires for the benefits of the group.Jun 25, · Nonverbal Communication in China.
Nonverbal communication includes facial expression, eye contact, gestures, and tone of voice. This plays such a vital role in our day-to-day life and at some point, it’s even more powerful than the verbal communication/5(5). A communication style is the way people communicate with others, verbally and nonverbally.
It combines both language and nonverbal cues and is the meta-message that dictates how listeners receive and interpret verbal messages. Of the theoretical perspectives proposed to understand cultural variations in communication styles, the most widely cited one is the differentiation between high-context.
German Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Styles Rachel Turner With approximately million speakers, mainly in the European countries of Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Luxembourg, German is one of the world's major languages. Oct 21, · Non-verbal communication is very important. When we speak we only communicate about 7% of our message.
The rest of the message is in our non-verbal communications. This is a fact for all societies, and cultures of the world. We also look for meaning by use of non-verbals when what is being said is unclear to us, or someone listening.
Feb 20, · Communication happens without words. It is an ongoing process. This non-verbal communication is expressed by facial expressions, gestures, posture and physical barriers such as distance from the interlocutor.
It is important that there is an . In contrast, Japanese communication relies less on verbal manipulation, and more heavily on non-verbals. Words are important, but so are body language, gestures, tone of voice, facial expressions, posture, and "non-word sounds" such as the hissing sound that Japanese often make when confronted with an unappealing proposal or situation.